Reproductive behaviour of Neurobasis kaupi (Odonata: Calopterygidae)


The reproductive behaviour of Neurobasis kaupi was studied for the first time in Central and South Sulawesi. The species was recorded in a wide variety of clear and fast flowing creeks, streams and rivers, mostly in forested areas. The males were territorial and defended potential oviposition sites, a limited resource. Territory owners demonstrated their presence by brief synchronized flashings of their hindwings as well as by regular inspection flights. Intruders were first driven off by short chasing flights. Longer lasting conflicts led to three different types of threatening flights, depending on the number of males involved and the level of excitation. As in other Calopterygidae males of N. kaupi led receptive females to potential oviposition sites. In courtship flight the male presented the upper sides of his stationary, depressed, quivering hindwings, with the hind margins broadly touching the water surface. Oviposition substrates were mostly submerged floating root mats or plants, optimally floating loosely at a depth of 5-15 cm below the water surface. The general patterns of behaviour of N. kaupi correspond to the known behaviour of other Neurobasis species. However, within this general framework there are clear differences between this species and others, especially N. chinensis.

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