Behaviour and body size: plasticity and genotypic diversity in larval Ischnura elegans as a response to predators (Odonata: Coenagrionidae)

Phenotypic plasticity represents an adaptive tool in organisms including odonates to cope with heterogeneous environmental conditions. However, while some odonate species can occupy various changing habitats, other species are adapted to a narrow range of environmental conditions. Commonly, behavioural modifications are applied to avoid detection and encounters with predators. But reduced behavioural activity results in…

Wing shape patterns among urban, suburban, and rural populations of Ischnura elegans (Odonata: Coenagrionidae)

Dragonflies and damselflies (the Odonata) are among the most efficient flying insects. However, fragmentation of the landscape can increase distance between habitats and affect costs of dispersal, thus shaping phenotypic patterns of flight-related traits, such as wing shape, wing loading and wing size. Urban landscapes are highly fragmented, which limits dispersal among aquatic habitats. Hence,

Genetic consequences of range expansions along several fronts in Crocothemis erythraea

Global warming has altered the ranges of many species, especially those of insects and other ectotherms that are particularly susceptible to rising temperatures. Four decades ago, the dragonfly Crocothemis erythraea began to demonstrate northern range expansion in Germany, as well as in Belgium, the Netherlands, Poland and the UK. The rapid range expansion of C….