Behaviour and body size: plasticity and genotypic diversity in larval Ischnura elegans as a response to predators (Odonata: Coenagrionidae)

Phenotypic plasticity represents an adaptive tool in organisms including odonates to cope with heterogeneous environmental conditions. However, while some odonate species can occupy various changing habitats, other species are adapted to a narrow range of environmental conditions. Commonly, behavioural modifications are applied to avoid detection and encounters with predators. But reduced behavioural activity results in…

Growth, winter preparations and timing of emergence in temperate zone Odonata: control by a succession of larval response patterns

As warm-adapted insects of tropical origin, Odonata cope with cold periods by seasonal regulation and diapause. A model for larval-overwintering species is proposed with three response patterns related to the timing of emergence, which can be predicted from seasonal cues during the last few stadia. For emergence during the present season, there is an often time constrained pre-emergence development, accelerated by long days and higher temperatures.

Constant and shifting photoperiods as seasonal cues during larval development of the univoltine damselfly Lestes sponsa (Odonata: Lestidae)

Larvae were reared at 21.5°C from eggs from southernmost Sweden, and fed ad libitum to emergence in four different photoperiodic treatments, intended to represent increasing levels of time stress: constant LD 16:8, corresponding to late April (or August) conditions, a shift after about two weeks from LD 16:8 to 19.5:4.5, coarsely simulating late spring, constant…

Landscape variation in the larval density of a bromeliad-dwelling zygopteran, Mecistogaster modesta (Odonata: Pseudostigmatidae)

In the premontane rain forests of northwest Costa Rica, patches of secondary forest can contain high densities of large Vriesea spp. bromeliads. Such patches contain an average of 6,470 ± 1,080 (s.e.) larvae ha-1 of the bromeliad-dwelling pseudostigmatid, Mecistogaster modesta, ca 3 6× higher than larval densities that we previously reported for adjacent primary forest.