We reconstruct a phylogenetic framework for the zygopteran family Lestidae based on a molecular dataset comprised of sequence data from the genes COI, 16S, 18S, 28S, and ITS1+2 from 41 ingroup taxa and 8 outgroup taxa with emphasis on the systematic position of the genus Chalcolestes Kennedy.
In sexual conflict, males are often thought to gain fitness benefits from harassing females over mating. Yet when harassment itself incurs costs to males and if alternative, receptive females are available in a local population, theory predicts that when confronted with a female refusal, a male’s choice of persisting or retreating is determined in part by the likelihood of achieving a mating.
Vestalis gracilis (Rambur, 1842) is a forest stream damselfly belonging to the family Calopterygidae. Its last-stadium larvae and exuviae are described and illustrated based on laboratory-raised specimens from Thailand, and observations of agonistic behavior are provided. The taxonomical characters of V. gracilis larvae are similar to those of V. amoena.